Text Types - Story, Familiar stories and traditional tales, Recount, Explanation text, Rhymes, Poems with simple repeated structure

Spoken Language

  • listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers
  • ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge
  • use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary
  • articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions
  • give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives
  • maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations, staying on topic and initiating and responding to comments
  • use spoken language to develop understanding through speculating, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas
  • speak audibly and fluently with an increasing command of Standard English
  • participate in discussions, presentations, performances, role play and debates
  • gain, maintain and monitor the interest of the listener(s)
  • consider different viewpoints, attending to and building on contributions of others
  • select and use appropriate registers for effective communication



  • spell words containing the 40+ phonemes taught
  • spell the days of the week
  • spell common exception words
  • name letters of the alphabet in order
  • use letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of same sound  use regular plural noun suffixes –s or –es
  • add suffixes to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (see appendix 1)
  • know how the prefix un– changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives


  • sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly
  • form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place
  • form capital letters:

Straight line: E F H I L T

Straight and slant line: A K M N V W X Y Z

Straight and curly line: B D G J P Q R U

Curly line: C S O

  • understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’:
  •  (l, I, t, u, j, y),   (r, b, n, h, m, p),  (c, a, d, o, g, q and s, e, f),  (z, v, w, x)
  • Form digits 0-9



Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

  • understand how words can combine to make sentences
  • use the conjunction ‘and’ to link words and join clauses
  • separate words with spaces
  • begin to use capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences
  • use capital letters for names of people, places and the days of the week
  • use a capital letter for the personal pronoun I
  • use the word ‘because’ to explain


Terminology: letter, capital letter, word, singular, plural, sentence, punctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark (use appendix 2 for further detail)


Word Reading

  • apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words
  • respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes
  • read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught
  • read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word
  • read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings
  • read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs
  • read words with contractions, and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s)
  • read books aloud, accurately that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words
  • reread these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading.

Reading comprehension

Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding.

  • listen to and discuss a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently
  • link what they read or hear to their own experiences
  • become very familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales, retelling them and considering their particular characteristics
  • recognise and join in with predictable phrases
  • learn to appreciate rhymes and poems
  • to recite rhymes and poems by heart
  • discuss word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known
  • develop understanding by drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher
  • check that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading
  • discuss the significance of the title and events
  • make inferences on the basis of what is being said and done
  • predict what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far
  • participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say
  • explain clearly their understanding of what is read to them

Writing: Composition, Cohesion and Effect


  • say out loud what they are going to write about
  • independently choose what to write about, orally rehearse, plan and develop own imaginative ideas for settings and characters in stories, using ideas from reading for some incidents and events
  • begin to plan stories with a simple structure: beginning/middle/end
  • assemble information on a subject e.g. food, pets


Drafting and writing


  • compose a sentence orally before writing it
  • write stories by sequencing sentences to form short narratives
  • use time words to aid sequencing and organise events
  • re-tell/imitate familiar stories and recounts events; include main events in sequence, focusing on who is in the event, where events take place and what happens in each event  include story language and sentence patterns e.g. one day, suddenly
  • continue and uses a repeating pattern
  • list words and phrases to describe details of first hand experiences using senses
  • make some choices of appropriate vocabulary
  • act out stories and portrays characters and their motives


  • continue and use a repeating pattern in poetry writing


  • sequence sentences to write simple non-fiction text types linked to topics of interest/study or to personal experience
  • begin to make some choices of appropriate vocabulary (e.g. defensive, wooden castle as opposed to haunted, spooky castle)
  • use simple features correctly e.g. greeting in a letter, numbers in a list

Proof-reading, editing and evaluating

  • discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils
  • re-read what they have written to check that it makes sense and attempts to edit for sense.


read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard by peers and teacher