Mathematics in Year 2
Number and Place Value
- count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward
- recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (tens, ones)
- identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line
- compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use and = signs
- read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
- use place value and number facts to solve problems.
Addition and subtraction
- solve problems with addition and subtraction:
- using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
- applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods
- recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
- add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:
- a two-digit number and ones
- a two-digit number and tens
- two two-digit numbers
- adding three one-digit numbers
- show that addition of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of one number from another cannot
- recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems
Multiplication and Division
- recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
- calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (×), division (÷) and equals (=) signs
- show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
- solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts.
- recognise, find, name and write fractions 1/3 , 1/4 , 2/4 and 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity
- write simple fractions for example, 1/2 of 6 = 3 and recognise the equivalence of 2/4 and 1/2 .
- choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (°C); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels
- compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and =
- recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money
- solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change
- compare and sequence intervals of time
- tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
- know the number of minutes in an hour and the number of hours in a day
Properties of Shape
- identify and describe the properties of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line
- identify and describe the properties of 3-D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces
- identify 2-D shapes on the surface of 3-D shapes, [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid]
- compare and sort common 2-D and 3-D shapes and everyday objects.
Geometry - position and direction
- order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences
- use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anticlockwise)
- interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables
- ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity
- ask and answer questions about totalling and comparing categorical data.
At the end of Year 2, all children will sit the National Curriculum Tests for Key Stage 1. This will include a short arithmetic test of 15 questions, and a second paper of broader mathematics which will last around 35 minutes.
English in Year 2
As children move through Key Stage 1, the new curriculum intends that almost all children will secure the basic skills of decoding so that they can become fluent readers. As their reading confidence grows they can begin to write their own ideas down.
Decoding is the ability to read words aloud by identifying the letter patterns and matching them to sounds. Once children are able to ‘decode’ the writing, they can then start to make sense of the words and sentences in context. Watch out for hard-to-decode words such as ‘one’ and ‘the’. These just have to be learned by heart.
Speaking and Listening
The Spoken Language objectives are set out for the whole of primary school, and teachers will cover many of them every year as children’s spoken language skills develop. In Year 2 some focuses may include:
- Articulate and justify answers and opinions
- Give well-structured explanations and narratives, for example in show-and-tell activities
Reading - word reading
- continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent
- read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes
- read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above
- read words containing common suffixes
- read further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word
- read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered
- read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation
- re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading.
Reading - comprehension
Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:
- listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently
- discussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related
- becoming increasingly familiar with and retelling a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales
- being introduced to non-fiction books that are structured in different ways
- recognising simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry
- discussing and clarifying the meanings of words, linking new meanings to known vocabulary
- discussing their favourite words and phrases
- continuing to build up a repertoire of poems learnt by heart, appreciating these and reciting some, with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear.
Understand both the books that they can already read accurately and fluently and those that they listen to by:
- drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher
- checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading
- making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done
- answering and asking questions
- predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far.
Participate in discussion about books, poems and other works that are read to them and those that they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say.
Explain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves.
Writing - transcription
- segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly
- learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones
- learning to spell common exception words
- learning to spell more words with contracted forms
- learning the possessive apostrophe (singular) [for example, the girl’s book]
- distinguishing between homophones and near-homophones
- add suffixes to spell longer words, including –ment, –ness, –ful, –less, –ly
- apply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English Appendix 1
- write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far.
Writing - composition
Develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by:
- writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional)
- writing about real events
- writing poetry
- writing for different purposes
Consider what they are going to write before beginning by:
- planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about
- writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary
- encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence
Make simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing by:
- evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupils
- re-reading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form
- proof-reading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation [for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly]
Read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear.
Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation
Develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:
- learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly (see English Appendix 2), including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and the possessive (singular)
Learn how to use:
- sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command
- expanded noun phrases to describe and specify [for example, the blue butterfly]
- the present and past tenses correctly and consistently including the progressive form
- subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but)
- the grammar for year 2 in English Appendix 2
- some features of written Standard English
Use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 in discussing their writing
At the end of Year 2, all children will sit the National Curriculum Tests for Key Stage 1. These will include two short reading tests, a grammar and punctuation test, and a spelling test.
Science in Year 2
In the first years of schooling, much of the science curriculum is based around real- life experiences for children. This includes everyday plants and animals, as well as finding out about different materials and the four seasons. There are likely to be lots of opportunities for exploring scientific ideas both in the classroom and the local surroundings.
Living Things and their Habitats
- explore and compare the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive
- identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, and how they depend on each other
- identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including microhabitats
- describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food.
- observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants
- find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy.
Animals including Humans
- notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults
- find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air)
- describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene.
Uses of everyday materials
- Identify and compare the suitability of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard for particular uses
- find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching.
Growing your own plants or flowers at home can be an exciting – if slow process for children to take part in. Why not try some quick- growing seeds such as cress or mustard, as well as something more substantial planted in the garden, and watch how the processes of growth are similar for all plants? At certain times of year you may also be lucky enough to witness some of the growth cycle in animals, such as tadpoles in a pond, or lambing season at the local farm.