Spoken Language

  • listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers
  • ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge
  • use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary
  • articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions
  • give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings
  • maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations, staying on topic and initiating and responding to comments
  • use spoken language to develop understanding through speculating, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas
  • speak audibly and fluently with an increasing command of Standard English
  • participate in discussions, presentations, performances, role play/improvisations and debates
  • gain, maintain and monitor the interest of the listener(s)
  • consider and evaluate different viewpoints, attending to and building on the contributions of others
  • select and use appropriate registers for effective communication


Text Types

Myths and legends

Traditional stories

Modern fiction

Fiction from our literary heritage

Books from other cultures and traditions

Poetry to learn by heart

Poems with clear structure, e.g. haiku, sonnet, ballad

Poems on a theme



Novel with a film version

Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

  • understand the difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms
  • understand how words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms
  • understand how use of the passive effects the presentation of information in a sentence
  • link ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections
  • understand layout devices (headings, sub-heading, columns, bullets, tables)
  • use a semi-colon, colon or dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses
  • use colons to introduce a list and use semi-colons within lists
  • use bullet points to list information
  • understand how hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity [for example, man eating shark versus man-eating shark, or recover versus re-cover] See appendix 2

Terminology: subject, object, active, passive, synonym, antonym, ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi-colon, bullet points


  • add suffixes beginning with vowels to words ending in ‘-fer’
  • spell words ending ‘-cial’ and ‘-tial’
  • spell words ending in ‘ant’, ‘-ance and ‘-ancy’
  • spell words ending ‘-ent’, ‘-ence’ and ‘-ency’
  • spell words ending in ‘-able’/ ‘-ably’ and ‘-ible’/‘-ibly’
  • use of hyphen
  • homophones & near homophones
  • antonyms & synonyms

See annotated spelling appendix 1


  • write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed by choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters
  • choose the writing implement that is best suited for a task


Word Reading

apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet.


Reading Comprehension

Maintain positive attitudes to reading and an understanding of what they read.

  • read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
  • read books that are structured in different ways
  • read for a range of purposes
  • increase their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions
  • recommend books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices
  • identify and discuss themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing
  • make comparisons within and across books
  • learn a wider range of poetry by heart
  • prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience
  • check that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context
  • ask questions to improve their understanding
  • draw inferences such as inferring characters' feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justify inferences with evidence
  • predict what might happen from details stated and implied
  • summarise the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas
  • identify how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning
  • discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader
  • distinguish between statements of fact and opinion
  • retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction
  • participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously
  • explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary
  • provide reasoned justifications for their views

Writing: Composition, Cohesion and Effect

Write in a range of genres/forms, taking account of different audiences and purposes


  • identify the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using similar writing as models for their own
  • note and develop initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary
  • consider how authors have developed characters and settings
  • maintain a clear focus when selecting content to plan quickly and effectively


Drafting and writing


  • précis longer passages
  • use a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs
  • show flexibility in the use of narrative e.g. ability to experiment with story opening
  • write a well-structured opening and appropriate ending
  • understand the difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing
  • select appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning
  • create vivid imagery through expressive and figurative language consistent with mood/atmosphere and develop these images throughout a narrative
  • describe setting, characters and atmosphere
  • integrate dialogue to convey character and advance the action
  • maintain interest for the reader through varied devices, structures and features
  • develop points of view and 'authorial voice' e.g. asides to reader



  • create vivid imagery through expressive and figurative language consistent with mood/atmosphere and develop these images throughout a poem
  • make appropriate use of structure in poetry, according to chosen form e.g. rhythmic or syllable patterns taking account of different audiences and purposes



  • use organisational and presentational devices to structure text and guide reader
  • write well-structured introductions and appropriate conclusions
  • use paragraphs purposefully to clearly structure main ideas across the text
  • maintain interest for the reader through varied devices, structures and features
  • choose appropriate presentational features to organise information and aid understanding
  • develop points of view and 'authorial voice', e.g. viewpoints in discursive texts
  • move between standard and non-standard forms of English appropriately
  • choose register (formal/informal, personal/impersonal) appropriately and for effect


Proof-reading, editing and evaluating

  • assess the effectiveness of their own and other’s writing
  • propose changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning

ensure the consistent evaluate and edit by being able to:

  • use of correct tense throughout a piece of writing
  • ensure correct subject/verb agreement for singular/plural, distinguish between language of speech and writing and choose the appropriate register
  • proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors



  • perform own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume and movement so that meaning is clear